Ketogenic Medical Research

Here's a compiled list of some of the relevant ketogenic medical research done which supports the information shared on this website.  I plan to add to this list as the studies become publicly available. You are welcome to share this page.

Alzheimer's Disease

Amiel SA, Archibald HR, Chusney G, Williams AJ, Gale EA. Ketone infusion lowers hormonal responses to hypoglycaemia: evidence for acute cerebral utilization of a non-glucose fuel. Clin Sci (Lond). 1991 Aug;81(2):189-94.

Barone E, Butterfield DA. Insulin resistance in Alzheimer disease: Is heme oxygenase-1 an Achille's heel? Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Dec;84:69-77.

Drenick EJ, Alvarez LC, Tamasi GC, Brickman AS. Resistance to symptomatic insulin reactions after fasting. J Clin Invest. 1972;51(10):2757-62. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC332976/pdf/jcinvest00637-0253.pdf

Francis HM, Stevenson RJ. Potential for diet to prevent and remediate cognitive deficits in neurological disorders. Nutr Rev. 2018 Mar 1;76(3):204-217.

Gasior M, Rogawski MA, Hartman AL. Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. Behav Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;17(5-6):431-9. Review. Hartman AL, Gasior M, Vining EP, Rogawski MA. The neuropharmacology of the ketogenic diet. Pediatr Neurol. 2007 May;36(5):281-92. Review.  

Henderson ST. Ketone bodies as a therapeutic for Alzheimer's disease. Neurotherapeutics. 2008 Jul;5(3):470-80. 

Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Dangelo K, Couch SC, Benoit SC, Clegg DJ. Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Feb;33(2):425.e19-27.  

Stafstrom CE, Rho JM. The ketogenic diet as a treatment paradigm for diverse neurological disorders. Front Pharmacol. 2012 Apr 9;3:59.

Takeda S, Sato N, Rakugi H, Morishita R. Molecular mechanisms linking diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease: beta-amyloid peptide, insulin signaling, and neuronal function. Mol Biosyst. 2011 Jun;7(6):1822-7.

Autism

El-Rashidy O, El-Baz F, El-Gendy Y, Khalaf R, Reda D, Saad K. Ketogenic diet versus gluten free casein free diet in autistic children: a case-control study. Metab Brain Dis. 2017 Dec;32(6):1935-1941. Epub 2017 Aug 14. PubMed PMID: 28808808.

Evangeliou A, Vlachonikolis I, Mihailidou H, Spilioti M, Skarpalezou A  et al. Application of a ketogenic diet in children with autistic behavior: pilot study. J Child Neurol. 2003 Feb;18(2):113-8. 

Gogou M, Kolios G. Are therapeutic diets an emerging additional choice in autism spectrum disorder management? World J Pediatr. 2018 Jun;14(3):215-223.

Herbert MR, Buckley JA. Autism and dietary therapy: case report and review of the literature. J Child Neurol. 2013 Aug;28(8):975-82. Epub 2013 May 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 23666039.

Lee RWY, Corley MJ, Pang A, Arakaki G, Abbott L, Nishimoto M, Miyamoto R, Lee E, Yamamoto S, Maunakea AK, Lum-Jones A, Wong M. A modified ketogenic gluten-free diet with MCT improves behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder. Physiol Behav. 2018 May 1;188:205-211.

Bipolar Disorder

Brietzke E, Mansur RB, Subramaniapillai M, Balanzá-Martínez V, Vinberg M, González-Pinto A, Rosenblat JD, Ho R, McIntyre RS. Ketogenic diet as a metabolic therapy for mood disorders: Evidence and developments. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2018 Nov;94:11-16.

Phelps JR,  Siemers SV, El-Mallakh RS. The ketogenic diet for type II bipolar disorder. Neurocase. 2013;19(5):423-6. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030231

Cancer

Abdelwahab MG, Fenton KE, Preul MC, et al. The Ketogenic Diet Is an Effective Adjuvant to Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Malignant Glioma. Canoll P, ed. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(5):e36197.

Bonnet S, Archer SL, Allalunis-Turner J, Haromy A, Beaulieu C, Thompson R, Lee CT, Lopaschuk GD, Puttagunta L, Bonnet S, Harry G, Hashimoto K, Porter CJ, Andrade MA, Thebaud B, Michelakis ED. A mitochondria-K+ chan-nel axis is suppressed in cancer and its normalization promotes apoptosis and inhibits cancer growth. Cancer Cell. 2007 Jan;11(1):37–51. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17222789

Brand RA. Biographical Sketch: Otto Heinrich Warburg, PhD, MD. . Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468(11):2831–2832. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947689/

Braun S, Bitton-Worms K, LeRoith D. The Link between the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer. International Journal of Biological Sciences. 2011;7(7):1003-1015.

Fine EJ, Segal-Isaacson CJ, Feinman RD, Herszkopf S, Romano MC, Tomuta N, Bontempo AF, Negassa A, Sparano JA. Targeting insulin inhibition as a metabolic therapy in advanced cancer: a pilot safety and feasibility dietary trial in 10 patients. Nutrition. 2012 Oct;28(10):1028–35. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22840388.

Giovannucci E. Metabolic syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, and colon cancer: a review. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Sep;86(3):s836-42. Review. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18265477

Jansen N, Walach H. The development of tumours under a ketogenic diet in association with the novel tumour marker TKTL1: A case series in general practice. Oncol Lett. 2016 Jan;11(1):584–592.

Klement RJ, Champ CE, Otto C, Kämmerer U. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ketogenic Diets in Mice: A Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2016 May 9;11(5):e0155050. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27159218

Klement RJ, Sweeney RA. Impact of a ketogenic diet intervention during radiotherapy on body composition: I. Initial clinical experience with six prospectively studied patients. BMC Res Notes. 2016 Mar 5;9:143.

Lussier DM, Woolf EC, Johnson JL, Brooks KS, Blattman JN, Scheck AC. Enhanced immunity in a mouse model of malignant glioma is mediated by a therapeutic ketogenic diet. BMC Cancer. 2016 May 13;16:310

Mukherjee P, Sotnikov AV, Mangian HJ, Zhou JR, Visek WJ, Clinton SK. Energy intake and prostate tumor growth, angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor expression. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:512–523.

Mulrooney TJ, Marsh J, Urits I, Seyfried TN, Mukherjee P. Influence of caloric restriction on constitutive expression of NF-κB in an experimental mouse astrocytoma. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 30;6(3):e18085.

National Cancer Institute. Metformin: Can a Diabetes Drug Help Prevent Cancer? Available at http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/research/metformin

Nebeling LC, Miraldi F, Shurin SB, Lerner E. Effects of a ketogenic diet on tumor metabolism and nutritional status in pediatric oncology patients: two case reports. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Apr;14(2):202. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7790697.

Onodera Y, Nam JM, Bissell MJ. Increased sugar uptake promotes oncogenesis via EPAC/RAP1 and O-GlcNAc pathways. J Clin Invest. 2013;124(1):367-84.

Parekh N, Lin Y, Hayes RB, Albu JB, Lu-Yao GL. Longitudinal associations of blood markers of insulin and glucose concentrations and cancer mortality in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Cancer causes & control : CCC. 2010;21(4):10.1007/s10552-009-9492-y. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3817266/

Poff A, Ward N, Seyfried T, D’Agostino D. Combination ketogenic diet, ketone supplementation, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits metastatic spread, slows tumor growth, and increases survival time in mice with metastatic cancer. The FASEB Journal. April 2014,vol. 28 no. 1 Supplement 123.7.

Poff AM, Ari C, Seyfried TN, D'Agostino DP. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 5;8(6):e65522. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23755243

Poff AM, Ward N, Seyfried TN, Arnold P, D'Agostino DP. Non-Toxic Metabolic Management of Metastatic Cancer in VM Mice: Novel Combination of Ketogenic Diet, Ketone Supplementation, and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 10;10(6):e0127407. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061868.

Ramachandran C, Wilk BJ, Hotchkiss A, Chau H, Eliaz I, Melnick SJ. Activation of human T-helper/inducer cell, T-cytotoxic cell, B-cell, and natural killer (NK)-cells and induction of natural killer cell activity against K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cells with modified citrus pectin. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Aug 4;11:59. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21816083

Sayin VI, Ibrahim MX, Larsson E, Nilsson JA, Lindahl P, Bergo MO. Antioxidants accelerate lung cancer progression in mice. Sci Transl Med. 2014 Jan 29;6(221):221ra15.

Scheck AC, Abdelwahab MG, Fenton KE, Stafford P. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of glioma: insights from genetic profiling. Epilepsy Res. 2012 Jul;100(3):327–37.

Schmidt M, Pfetzer N, Schwab M, Strauss I, Kämmerer U. Effects of a ketogenic diet on the quality of life in 16 patients with advanced cancer: A pilot trial. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2011;8:54. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-54. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3157418/

Semenza GL. Regulation of cancer cell metabolism by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Semin Cancer Biol. 2009 Feb;19(1):12–6. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19114105

Seyfried TN, Flores RE, Poff AM, D'Agostino DP. Cancer as a metabolic disease: implications for novel therapeu-tics. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Mar;35(3):515-27. Review. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24343361

Seyfried TN, Sanderson TM, El-Abbadi MM, McGowan R, Mukherjee P. Role of glucose and ketone bodies in the metabolic control of experimental brain cancer. Br J Cancer. 2003 Oct 6;89(7):1375–82.

Seyfried TN, Shelton LM. Cancer as a metabolic disease. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Jan 27;7:7.

Seyfried, Thomas N. Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management, and Prevention of Cancer. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

Shukla SK, Gebregiworgis T, Purohit V, Chaika NV, Gunda V, Radhakrishnan P, Mehla K, Pipinos II, Powers R, Yu F, Singh PK. Metabolic reprogramming induced by ketone bodies diminishes pancreatic cancer cachexia. Cancer Metab. 2014 Sep 1;2:18. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25228990.

Stafford P, Abdelwahab MG, Kim DY, Preul MC, Rho JM, Scheck AC. The ketogenic diet reverses gene expression patterns and reduces reactive oxygen species levels when used as an adjuvant therapy for glioma. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2010 Sep 10;7:74

University of South Florida Health Sciences. Available at https: //hscweb3.hsc.usf.edu/blog/2015/06/10/usf-researchers-develop-novel-ketone-supplements-to-enhance-non-toxic-cancer-therapy/

Warburg OH. The classic: The chemical constitution of respiration ferment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010 Nov;468(11): 2833–9. Reprint.

Woolf EC, Scheck AC. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of malignant glioma. Journal of Lipid Research. 2015;56(1):5-10. Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4274070/

Yang SL, Ren QG, Wen L, Hu JL. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha in lung cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2016 Jun;36(3):321–7. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27376798.

Zhang D, Cui L, Li SS, Wang F. Insulin and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 cooperate in pancreatic cancer cells to increase cell viability. Oncol Lett. 2015 Sep;10(3):1545–1550. Epub 2015 Jun 17. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26622706

Zupec-Kania, Beth. Modified Ketogenic Diet Therapy. The Charlie Foundation for Ketogenic Diet Therapies, 2013.

Diabetes, Type 1

Aguirre Castaneda RL, Mack KJ, Lteif A. Successful treatment of type 1 diabetes and seizures with combined ketogenic diet and insulin. Pediatrics. 2012 Feb;129(2):e511-4

Basciano H, Federico L, Adeli K. Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005 Feb 21;2(1):5.

Bell, Kirstine J et al. Efficacy of carbohydrate counting in type 1 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, Volume 2, Issue 2, 133 – 140.

Binder C, Lauritzen T, Faber O, Pramming S. Insulin pharmacokinetics. Diabetes Care. 1984 Mar-Apr;7(2):188-99. Review.

Nielsen JV, Gando C, Joensson E, Paulsson C. Low carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes, long-term improvement and adherence: A clinical audit. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012 May 31;4(1):23. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22650646

De Leeuw I, Vague P, Selam JL, Skeie S, Lang H, Draeger E, Elte JW. Insulin detemir used in basal-bolus therapy in people with type 1 diabetes is associated with a lower risk of nocturnal hypoglycaemia and less weight gain over 12 months in comparison to NPH insulin. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005 Jan;7(1):73-82.

Dressler A, Reithofer E, Trimmel-Schwahofer P, Klebermasz K, Prayer D, Kasprian G, et al. Type 1 diabetes and epilepsy: efficacy and safety of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 2010 Jun;51(6): 1086-9.

Laurenzi A, Bolla AM, Panigoni G, Doria V, Uccellatore A, Peretti E, Saibene A, Galimberti G, Bosi E, Scavini M. Effects of carbohydrate counting on glucose control and quality of life over 24 weeks in adult patients with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: a randomized, prospective clinical trial (GIOCAR). Diabetes Care. 2011 Apr;34(4):823-7.

Marran KJ, Davey B, Lang A, Segal DG. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with increasing carbohydrate loads using a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio. S Afr Med J. 2013 Apr 10;103(7):461-3.

Diabetes, Type 2

Accurso A, Bernstein RK, Dahlqvist A, Draznin B, Feinman RD, Fine EJ, Gleed A, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2008 Apr 8;5:9.

Ahsan H. Diabetic retinopathy - Biomolecules and multiple pathophysiology. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2015 January - March;9(1):51-54.

Bergenstal RM, Johnson M, Powers MA, Wynne A, Vlajnic A, Hollander P, Rendell M. Adjust to target in type 2 diabetes: comparison of a simple algorithm with carbohydrate counting for adjustment of mealtime insulin glulisine. Diabetes Care. 2008 Jul;31(7):1305-10.

Boden G, Sargrad K, Homko C, Mozzoli M, Stein TP. Effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on appetite, blood glucose levels, and insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Mar 15;142(6):403-11.

Borkman M, Chisholm DJ, Furler SM, Storlien LH, Kraegen EW, Simons LA, Chesterman CN. Effects of fish oil supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in NIDDM.Diabetes. 1989 Oct;38(10):1314-9.

Brambilla P, La Valle E, Falbo R, Limonta G, Signorini S, Cappellini F, Mocarelli P. Normal fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jun;34(6):1372-4.

Cohen RM, Franco RS, Khera PK, Smith EP, Lindsell CJ, Ciraolo PJ, Palascak MB, Joiner CH. Red cell life span heterogeneity in hematologically normal people is sufficient to alter HbA1c. Blood. 2008 Nov 15;112(10):4284-91.

Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR, Chasan-Taber L, Albright AL, Braun B; American College of Sports Medicine; American Diabetes Association. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care. 2010 Dec;33(12):e147-67.

Cuff DJ, Meneilly GS, Martin A, Ignaszewski A, Tildesley HD, Frohlich JJ. Effective exercise modality to reduce insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Nov;26(11):2977-82.

Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Khadada M, Al-Mousawi M, Talib H, Asfar SK, Behbahani AI, Al-Zaid NS. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Aug;302(1-2):249-56. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17447017

Demmer RT, Jacobs DR Jr, Singh R, Zuk A, Rosenbaum M, Papapanou PN, Desvarieux M. Periodontal Bacteria and Prediabetes Prevalence in ORIGINS: The Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance Study. J Dent Res. 2015 Sep;94(9 Suppl):201S-11S.Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26082387

Ekström N, Schiöler L, Svensson AM, Eeg-Olofsson K, Miao Jonasson J, Zethelius B, et al. Effectiveness and safety of metformin in 51 675 patients with type 2 diabetes and different levels of renal function: a cohort study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. BMJ Open. 2012 Jul 13;2(4). pii: e001076.

Emanuele NV, Swade TF, Emanuele MA. Consequences of alcohol use in diabetics. Alcohol Health Res World. 1998;22(3):211-9. Review.

Feinman RD, Pogozelski WK, Astrup A, Bernstein RK, Fine EJ, Westman EC, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base. Nutrition. 2015 Jan;31(1):1-13. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25287761

Feinman RD, Volek JS. Carbohydrate restriction as the default treatment for type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2008 Aug;42(4):256-63.

Forbes JM, Cooper ME. Glycation in diabetic nephropathy. Amino Acids. 2012 Apr;42(4):1185-92.

Fourest-Fontecave S, Adamson U, Lins PE, Ekblom B, Sandahl C, Strand L. Mental alertness in response to hypoglycaemia in normal man: the effect of 12 hours and 72 hours of fasting. Diabete Metab. 1987 Jul-Aug;13(4):405-10.

Friday KE, Childs MT, Tsunehara CH, Fujimoto WY, Bierman EL, Ensinck JW.  Elevated plasma glucose and lowered triglyceride levels from omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in type II diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1989 Apr;12(4):276-81.

Gannon MC, Nuttall FQ. Effect of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet on blood glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2004 Sep;53(9):2375-82.

Glauber H, Wallace P, Griver K, Brechtel G.  Adverse metabolic effect of omega-3 fatty acids in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1988 May;108(5):663-8.

Goldin A, Beckman JA, Schmidt AM, Creager MA. Advanced glycation end products: sparking the development of diabetic vascular injury. Circulation. 2006 Aug 8;114(6):597-605. Review.

Sandireddy R, Yerra VG, Areti A, Komirishetty P, Kumar A. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy: futuristic strategies based on these targets. Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:674987.

Stevens A. The contribution of glycation to cataract formation in diabetes. J Am Optom Assoc. 1998 Aug;69(8):519-30. Review.

Stewart WJ, McSweeney SM, Kellett MA, Faxon DP, Ryan TJ. Increased risk of severe protamine reactions in NPH insulin-dependent diabetics undergoing cardiac catheterization. Circulation. 1984 Nov;70(5):788-92.

Stitt AW. The role of advanced glycation in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Exp Mol Pathol. 2003 Aug;75(1):95-108. Review.

Sugimoto K, Yasujima M, Yagihashi S. Role of advanced glycation end products in diabetic neuropathy. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14(10):953-61. Review.

Westman EC, Yancy WS Jr, Mavropoulos JC, Marquart M, McDuffie JR. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2008 Dec 19;5:36. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19099589

Westman EC, Yancy WS, Edman JS, Tomlin KF, Perkins CE. Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. Am J Med. 2002 Jul;113(1):30-6. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12106620

Yamagishi, S., & Matsui, T. (2010). Advanced glycation end products, oxidative stress and diabetic nephropathy. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 3(2), 101–108. doi:10.4161/oxim.3.2.4.

Yamagishi S. Advanced glycation end products and receptor-oxidative stress system in diabetic vascular complications. Ther Apher Dial. 2009 Dec;13(6):534-9.

Yancy WS Jr, Foy M, Chalecki AM, Vernon MC, Westman EC. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005 Dec 1;2:34.

Yun JS, Ko SH. Avoiding or coping with severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Korean J Intern Med. 2015 Jan;30(1):6-16.

Zintzaras E, Miligkos M, Ziakas P, Balk EM, Mademtzoglou D, Doxani C, et al. Assessment of the relative effectiveness and tolerability of treatments of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a network meta-analysis. Clin Ther. 2014 Oct 1;36(10):1443-53.e9.

Epilepsy

Boison D. New insights into the mechanisms of the ketogenic diet. Curr Opin Neurol. 2017 Apr;30(2):187-192.

Freeman JM, Vining EP, Pillas DJ, Pyzik PL, Casey JC, Kelly LM. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet-1998: a prospective evaluation of intervention in 150 children. Pediatrics. 1998 Dec;102(6): 1358-63.

Freeman JM, Kossoff EH. Ketosis and the ketogenic diet, 2010: advances in treating epilepsy and other disorders. Adv Pediatr. 2010;57(1):315-29.

Hemingway C, Freeman JM, Pillas DJ, Pyzik PL. The ketogenic diet: a 3- to 6-year follow-up of 150 children enrolled prospectively. Pediatrics. 2001 Oct;108(4):898-905. PubMed PMID: 11581442.

Gasior M, Rogawski MA, Hartman AL. Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet. Behav Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;17(5-6):431-9. Review.

Kang HC, Chung DE, Kim DW, Kim HD. Early- and late-onset complications of the ketogenic diet for intractable epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2004 Sep;45(9):1116-23. PubMed PMID: 15329077.

Kossoff EH, Pyzik PL, McGrogan JR, Vining EP, Freeman JM. Efficacy of the ketogenic diet for infantile spasms. Pediatrics. 2002 May;109(5):780-3. PubMed PMID: 11986436.

Levy RG, Cooper PN, Giri P. Ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for epilepsy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Mar 14;(3):CD001903. Review. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;2:CD001903. PubMed PMID: 22419282.

Schwartz RM, Boyes S, Aynsley-Green A. Metabolic effects of three ketogenic diets in the treatment of severe epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1989 Apr;31(2):152-60.

Fatty Liver Disease

Schugar RC, Crawford PA. Low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets, glucose homeostasis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012 Jul;15(4):374-80.

Schugar RC, Huang X, Moll AR, Brunt EM, Crawford PA. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet. PLoS One. 2013 Aug 29;8(8):e74806.

Tendler D, Lin S, Yancy WS Jr, Mavropoulos J, Sylvestre P, Rockey DC, Westman EC. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Feb;52(2):589-93.

GERD/Reflux/Heartburn

Austin GL, Thiny MT, Westman EC, Yancy WS Jr, Shaheen NJ. A very low-carbohydrate diet improves gas-troesophageal reflux and its symptoms. Dig Dis Sci. 2006 Aug;51(8):1307-12. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16871438

Nachman F, Vázquez H, González A, Andrenacci P, Compagni L, Reyes H, Sugai E, Moreno ML, Smecuol E, Hwang HJ, Sánchez IP, Mauriño E, Bai JC. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in patients with celiac disease and the effects of a gluten-free diet. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Mar;9(3):214-9. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20601132

Pointer SD, Rickstrew J, Slaughter JC, Vaezi MF, Silver HJ. Dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a  pilot study in European- and African-American obese women. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Nov;44(9):976-988.

Riegler M, Kristo I, Asari R, Rieder E, Schoppmann SF. Dietary sugar and Barrett's esophagus. Eur Surg. 2017;49(6):279-281.

Wu KL, Kuo CM, Yao CC, Tai WC, Chuah SK, Lim CS, Chiu YC. The effect of dietary carbohydrate on gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Formos Med Assoc. 2018 Nov;117(11):973-978.

Heart Disease

Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D'Alessio DA. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Apr;88(4):1617-23. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12679447

Bjørnholt JV, Erikssen G, Aaser E, Sandvik L, Nitter-Hauge S, Jervell J, Erikssen J, Thaulow E. Fasting blood glucose: an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular death. Results from a 22-year follow-up of healthy nondiabetic men. Diabetes Care. 1999 Jan;22(1):45-9.

Forsythe CE, Phinney SD, Fernandez ML, Quann EE, Wood RJ, Bibus DM, Kraemer WJ, Feinman RD, Volek JS. Comparison of low fat and low carbohydrate diets on circulating fatty acid composition and markers of inflammation. Lipids. 2008 Jan;43(1):65-77. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18046594

Rosedale, Ron. Cholesterol is NOT the cause of heart disease. Available at http://drrosedale.com/Cholesterol_is_NOT_the_cause_of_heart_disease.htm#ixzz4H35CzptL

Samaha FF, Foster GD, Makris AP. Low-carbohydrate diets, obesity, and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2007 Dec;9(6): 441-7. Review.

Dhaliwal SS, Welborn TA, Howat PA. Recreational physical activity as an independent predictor of multivariable cardiovascular disease risk. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 26;8(12):e83435.

Drenick EJ, Alvarez LC, Tamasi GC, Brickman AS. Resistance to symptomatic insulin reactions after fasting. J Clin Invest. 1972 Oct;51(10):2757-62.

Khaw KT, Wareham N, Bingham S, Luben R, Welch A, Day N. Association of hemoglobin A1c with cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults: the European prospective investigation into cancer in Norfolk. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Sep 21;141(6):413-20.

Khaw KT, Wareham N, Luben R, Bingham S, Oakes S, Welch A, Day N. Glycated haemoglobin, diabetes, and mortality in men in Norfolk cohort of european prospective investigation of cancer and nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk). BMJ. 2001 Jan 6;322(7277):15-8.

Kilpatrick ES, Maylor PW, Keevil BG. Biological variation of glycated hemoglobin. Implications for diabetes screening and monitoring. Diabetes Care. 1998 Feb;21(2):261-4.

Knowler WC, Bennett PH, Hamman RF, Miller M. Diabetes incidence and prevalence in Pima Indians: a 19-fold greater incidence than in Rochester, Minnesota. Am J Epidemiol. 1978 Dec;108(6):497-505.

Koga M, Kasayama S. Clinical impact of glycated albumin as another glycemic control marker. Endocr J. 2010;57(9):751-62.

Tennyson C, Lee R, Attia R. Is there a role for HbA1c in predicting mortality and morbidity outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2013 Dec;17(6): 1000-8. Epub 2013 Sep 10. Review.

Yang Q, Zhang Z, Gregg EW, Flanders WD, Merritt R, Hu FB. Added sugar intake and cardiovascular diseases mortality among US adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Apr;174(4):516-24.

Insulin Resistance/Metabolic Syndrome

Borghouts LB, Keizer HA. Exercise and insulin sensitivity: a review. Int J Sports Med. 2000 Jan;21(1):1-12. Review.

Daly ME, Vale C, Walker M, Littlefield A, Alberti KG, Mathers JC. Acute effects on insulin sensitivity and diurnal metabolic profiles of a high-sucrose compared with a high-starch diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Jun;67(6):1186-96.

Elliott SS, Keim NL, Stern JS, Teff K, Havel PJ. Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Nov;76(5):911-22. Review.

Gershuni VM, Yan SL, Medici V. Nutritional Ketosis for Weight Management and Reversal of Metabolic Syndrome. Curr Nutr Rep. 2018 Sep;7(3):97-106.

Manrique C, Lastra G, Sowers JR. New insights into insulin action and resistance in the vasculature. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2014;1311(1):138-150. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3989838/

Straub RH. Insulin resistance, selfish brain, and selfish immune system: an evolutionarily positively selected program used in chronic inflammatory diseases. Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2014;16(Suppl 2):S4. doi:10.1186/ar4688. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4249495/

Volek JS, Feinman RD. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005 Nov 16;2:31.

Volek JS, Fernandez ML, Feinman RD, Phinney SD. Dietary carbohydrate restriction induces a unique metabolic state positively affecting atherogenic dyslipidemia, fatty acid partitioning, and metabolic syndrome. Prog Lipid Res. 2008 Sep;47(5):307-18.

Volek JS, Phinney SD, Forsythe CE, Quann EE, Wood RJ, Puglisi MJ, Kraemer WJ, Bibus DM, Fernandez ML, Feinman RD. Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low-fat diet. Lipids. 2009 Apr;44(4):297-309.

Ketone Bodies and Ketogenic Diets

Cahill GF Jr. Fuel metabolism in starvation. Annu Rev Nutr. 2006;26:1-22. Review.

D'Agostino DP, Pilla R, Held HE, Landon CS, Puchowicz M, Brunengraber H, Ari C, Arnold P, Dean JB. Therapeutic ketosis with ketone ester delays central nervous system oxygen toxicity seizures in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013 May 15;304(10):R829-36. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23552496

Lardy HA, Phillips PH. 1945. Studies of fat and carbohydrate oxidation in mammalian spermatozoa. Arch. Biochem. 6:53–61

Layman DK. Dietary Guidelines should reflect new understandings about adult protein needs. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009 Mar 13;6:12.

Newman JC, Verdin E. Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan;25(1): 42–52. Epub 2013 Oct 18. Review.

Owen OE, Morgan AP, Kemp HG, Sullivan JM, Herrera MG, Cahill GF Jr. Brain metabolism during fasting. J Clin Invest. 1967 Oct; 46(10):1589-95.

Owen OE, Sullivan JM, and Cahill GF Jr. Brain metabolism during starvation. 1966. Clin.Res. 14: 351.

Paoli A, Rubini A, Volek JS, Grimaldi KA. Beyond weight loss: a review of the therapeutic uses of very-low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug;67(8):789-96. Review. Erratum in: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 May;68(5):641. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23801097/

Paoli A, Rubini A, Volek JS, Grimaldi KA. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug;67(8):789-96. Review. Erratum in: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 May;68(5):641.

Paoli A. Ketogenic diet for obesity: friend or foe? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Feb 19;11(2):2092-107.

Paoli A, Bosco G, Camporesi EM, Mangar D. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship. Front Psychol. 2015 Feb 2;6:27.

Phinney SD, Bistrian BR, Wolfe RR, Blackburn GL. The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: physical and biochemical adaptation. Metabolism. 1983 Aug;32(8):757-68.

Poplawski MM, Mastaitis JW, Isoda F, Grosjean F, Zheng F, Mobbs CV. Reversal of diabetic nephropathy by a ketogenic diet. PLoS One. 2011 Apr 20;6(4):e18604.

Sapir DG, Owen OE. Renal conservation of ketone bodies during starvation. Metabolism. 1975 Jan;24(1):23-33.

Veech R. L. (2004) The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: The effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: Ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids 70: 309–319.

Yudkoff M, Daikhin Y, Horyn O, Nissim I, Nissim I. Ketosis and brain handling of glutamate, glutamine, and GABA. Epilepsia. 2008;49 Suppl 8(Suppl 8):73-5.

Migraine Headaches

Barbanti P, Fofi L, Aurilia C, Egeo G, Caprio M. Ketogenic diet in migraine: rationale, findings and perspectives. Neurol Sci. 2017 May;38(Suppl 1):111-115.

Di Lorenzo C, Coppola G, Bracaglia M, Di Lenola D, Evangelista M, Sirianni G, Rossi P, Di Lorenzo G, Serrao M, Parisi V, Pierelli F. Cortical functional correlates of responsiveness to short-lasting preventive intervention with ketogenic diet in migraine: a multimodal evoked potentials study. J Headache Pain. 2016;17:58.

Di Lorenzo C, Coppola G, Di Lenola D, Evangelista M, Sirianni G, Rossi P, Di Lorenzo G, Serrao M, Pierelli F. Efficacy of Modified Atkins Ketogenic Diet in Chronic Cluster Headache: An Open-Label, Single-Arm, Clinical Trial. Front Neurol. 2018 Feb 12;9:64.

Di Lorenzo C, Coppola G, Sirianni G, Di Lorenzo G, Bracaglia M, Di Lenola D, Siracusano A, Rossi P, Pierelli F. Migraine improvement during short lasting ketogenesis: a proof-of-concept study. Eur J Neurol. 2015 Jan;22(1):170-7.

Di Lorenzo C, Currà A, Sirianni G, Coppola G, Bracaglia M, Cardillo A, De Nardis L, Pierelli F. Diet transiently improves migraine in two twin sisters: possible role of ketogenesis? Funct Neurol. 2013 Oct-Dec;28(4):305-8.

Maggioni F, Margoni M, Zanchin G. Ketogenic diet in migraine treatment: a brief but ancient history. Cephalalgia. 2011 Jul;31(10):1150-1.

Multiple Sclerosis

Bock M, Karber M, Kuhn H. Ketogenic diets attenuate cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase gene expression in multiple sclerosis. EBioMedicine. 2018 Oct;36:293-303.

Choi IY, Piccio L, Childress P, Bollman B, Ghosh A, Brandhorst S, Suarez J, Michalsen A, Cross AH, Morgan TE, Wei M, Paul F, Bock M, Longo VD. A Diet Mimicking Fasting Promotes Regeneration and Reduces Autoimmunity and Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms. Cell Rep. 2016 Jun 7;15(10):2136-2146.

Francis HM, Stevenson RJ. Potential for diet to prevent and remediate cognitive deficits in neurological disorders. Nutr Rev. 2018 Mar 1;76(3):204-217.

Swidsinski A, Dörffel Y, Loening-Baucke V, Gille C, Göktas Ö, Reißhauer A, Neuhaus J, Weylandt KH, Guschin A, Bock M. Reduced Mass and Diversity of the Colonic Microbiome in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Their Improvement with Ketogenic Diet. Front Microbiol. 2017 Jun 28;8:1141.

Parkinson's Disease

Keto Diet & Parkinson's Disease with William Curtis. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5sYClVQyMLM

Bill Curtis Youtube channel, includes videos:  https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcsJRsZaee3U7kAvhMkTaOA

Francis HM, Stevenson RJ. Potential for diet to prevent and remediate cognitive deficits in neurological disorders. Nutr Rev. 2018 Mar 1;76(3):204-217.

Hartman AL. Neuroprotection in metabolism-based therapy. Epilepsy Res. 2012 Jul;100(3):286-94.

Phillips MCL, Murtagh DKJ, Gilbertson LJ, Asztely FJS, Lynch CDP. Low-fat versus ketogenic diet in Parkinson's disease: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Mov Disord. 2018 Aug;33(8):1306-1314.

Stafstrom CE, Rho JM. The ketogenic diet as a treatment paradigm for diverse neurological disorders. Front Pharmacol. 2012 Apr 9;3:59. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22509165

Schizophrenia/Schizoaffective Disorder

Kraft BD, Westman EC. Schizophrenia, gluten, and low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets: a case report and review of the literature. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2009 Feb 26;6:10.Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19245705

Palmer CM. Ketogenic diet in the treatment of schizoaffective disorder: Two case studies. Schizophr Res. 2017 Nov;189:208-209.  Cases summarized by Dr. Georgia Edes here:  https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/diagnosis-diet/201709/low-carbohydrate-diet-superior-antipsychotic-medications

Włodarczyk A, Wiglusz MS, Cubała WJ. Ketogenic diet for schizophrenia: Nutritional approach to antipsychotic treatment. Med Hypotheses. 2018 Sep;118:74-77.

Weight Loss

Albanese A, Prevedello L, Markovich M, Busetto L, Vettor R, Foletto M. Pre-operative Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) vs. Very Low Calorie Diet (VLCD): Surgical Impact. Obes Surg. 2018 Sep 24.

Bueno NB, de Melo IS, de Oliveira SL, da Rocha Ataide T. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2013 Oct;110(7):1178-87.

Castro AI, Gomez-Arbelaez D, Crujeiras AB, Granero R, Aguera Z, Jimenez-Murcia S, Sajoux I, Lopez-Jaramillo P, Fernandez-Aranda F, Casanueva FF. Effect of A Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Food and Alcohol Cravings, Physical and Sexual Activity, Sleep Disturbances, and Quality of Life in Obese Patients. Nutrients. 2018 Sep 21;10(10).

Gershuni VM, Yan SL, Medici V. Nutritional Ketosis for Weight Management and Reversal of Metabolic Syndrome. Curr Nutr Rep. 2018 Sep;7(3):97-106.

Gibson AA, Seimon RV, Lee CM, Ayre J, Franklin J, Markovic TP, Caterson ID, Sainsbury A. Do ketogenic diets really suppress appetite? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2015 Jan;16(1):64-76. Review. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25402637

Hainer V, Stunkard A, Kunesová M, Parízková J, Stich V, Allison DB. A twin study of weight loss and metabolic efficiency. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Apr;25(4):533-7.

McPherson PA, McEneny J. The biochemistry of ketogenesis and its role in weight management, neurological disease and oxidative stress. J Physiol Biochem. 2012 Mar;68(1):141-51.

Rauch JT, Silva JE, Lowery RP, et al. The effects of ketogenic dieting on skeletal muscle and fat mass. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2014;11(Suppl 1):P40. Published 2014 Dec 1.

Staverosky T. Ketogenic Weight Loss: The Lowering of Insulin Levels Is the Sleeping Giant in Patient Care. J Med Pract Manage. 2016 Sep;32(1):63-66.

Taus M, Fumelli D, Busni D, Borroni F, Sebastianelli S, Nicolai G, Nicolai A. A very low calorie ketogenic diet improves weight loss and quality of life in patients with adjustable gastric banding. Ann Ital Chir. 2017;88. 

Favorite Resources for Ketogenic Medical Research




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